Johnny Otis, the musician, bandleader, songwriter, impresario, disc jockey and talent scout often called “the godfather of rhythm and blues,” died on Tuesday at his home in Altadena, Calif. He was 90.
His death was confirmed by his manager, Terry Gould.
Leading a band in the late 1940s that combined the high musical standards of big-band jazz with the raw urgency of gospel music and the blues, Mr. Otis played a key role in creating a new sound for a new audience of young urban blacks, a sound that within a few years would form the foundation of rock ’n’ roll.
With his uncanny ear for talent, he helped steer a long list of performers to stardom, among them Etta James, Jackie Wilson, Esther Phillips and Big Mama Thornton — whose hit recording of “Hound Dog,” made in 1952, four years before Elvis Presley’s, was produced by Mr. Otis and featured him on drums.
Ms. James spoke for many of her fellow performers when, at Mr. Otis’s induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1994, she referred to him as her “guru.” (He received similar honors from the Rhythm & Blues Foundation and the Blues Foundation.)
Mr. Otis’s contributions were not limited to music. He was also a political activist, a preacher, an artist, an author and even, late in life, an organic farmer. But music was always his first love, and it was in music that he left his most lasting mark.
Despite being a mover and shaker in the world of black music, Mr. Otis was not black, a fact that as far as he was concerned was simply an accident of birth. He was immersed in African-American culture from an early age and considered himself, he said, “black by persuasion.”
“Genetically, I’m pure Greek,” he told The San Jose Mercury News in 1994. “Psychologically, environmentally, culturally, by choice, I’m a member of the black community.”
As a musician — he played piano and vibraphone in addition to drums — Mr. Otis can be heard on Johnny Ace’s “Pledging My Love,” Charles Brown’s “Drifting Blues” and other seminal rhythm-and-blues records, as well as jazz records by Lester Young and Illinois Jacquet. As a bandleader and occasional vocalist, he had a string of rhythm-and-blues hits in the early 1950s and a Top 10 pop hit in 1958 with his composition “Willie and the Hand Jive,” later covered by Eric Clapton and others. His many other compositions included “Every Beat of My Heart,” a Top 10 hit for Gladys Knight and the Pips in 1961.
As a disc jockey (he was on the radio from the 1950s into the 21st century and also had his own Los Angeles television show from 1954 to 1961), he helped bring black vernacular music into the American mainstream.
Johnny Otis was born John Alexander Veliotes on Dec. 28, 1921, in Vallejo, Calif., the son of Greek immigrants who ran a grocery,. He grew up in a predominantly black area of Berkeley.
Mr. Otis began his career as a drummer in 1939. In 1945 he formed a 16-piece band and recorded his first hit, “Harlem Nocturne.”
As big bands fell out of fashion, Mr. Otis stripped the ensemble down to just a few horns and a rhythm section and stepped to the forefront of the emerging rhythm-and-blues scene. In 1948 he and a partner opened an R&B nightclub, the Barrelhouse, in the Watts section of Los Angeles.
From 1950 to 1952 Mr. Otis had 15 singles on Billboard’s rhythm-and-blues Top 40, including “Double Crossing Blues,” which was No. 1 for nine weeks. On the strength of that success, he crisscrossed the country with his California Rhythm and Blues Caravan, featuring singers like Esther Phillips, billed as Little Esther — whom he had discovered at a talent contest at his nightclub — and Hank Ballard, who a decade later would record the original version of “The Twist,” the song that ushered in a national dance craze.
Around this same time Mr. Otis became a D.J. on the Los Angeles radio station KFOX. He was an immediate success, and soon had his own local television show as well. Beginning in the 1970s he was heard on Pacifica radio stations in California, where his weekly show remained until 2005.
Hundreds of Mr. Otis’s radio and television shows are archived at Indiana University. In addition, he is the subject of a coming documentary film, “Every Beat of My Heart: The Johnny Otis Story,” directed by Bruce Schmiechen, and a biography, “Midnight at the Barrelhouse,” written by George Lipsitz and published by the University of Minnesota Press in 2010.
While he never stopped making music as long as his health allowed, Mr. Otis focused much of his attention in the 1960s on politics and the civil rights movement. He ran unsuccessfully for a seat in the California State Assembly and served on the staff of Mervyn M. Dymally, a Democratic assemblyman who later became a United States congressman and California’s first black lieutenant governor. Mr. Otis’s first book, “Listen to the Lambs” (1968), was largely a reflection on the political and social significance of the 1965 Watts riots.
In the mid-1970s, Mr. Otis branched out still further when he was ordained as a minister and opened the nondenominational Landmark Community Church in Los Angeles. While he acknowledged that some people attended just “to see what Reverend Hand Jive was talking about,” he took his position seriously and in his decade as pastor was actively involved in feeding the homeless and other charitable work.
In the early 1990s, he moved to the small northern California agricultural town of Sebastopol and became an organic farmer, a career detour that he said was motivated by his concern for the environment. For several years he made and sold his own brand of organic apple juice. The store he opened to sell the produce that he and his son Nick grew doubled as a nightclub where he and his band performed.
Later that decade Mr. Otis published three more books: “Upside Your Head!: Rhythm and Blues on Central Avenue” (1993), a memoir of his musical life; “Colors and Chords” (1995), a collection of his paintings, sculptures, wood carvings and cartoons (his interest in art had begun when he started sketching cartoons on his tour bus in the 1950s for the amusement of his band); and “Red Beans & Rice and Other Rock ’n’ Roll Recipes” (1997), a cookbook.
Mr. Otis continued to record and perform into the 21st century. His bands often included members of his family: his son John Jr., known as Shuggie, is a celebrated guitarist who played with him for many years, and another son, Nick, was his longtime drummer. Two of his grandsons, Lucky and Eric Otis, also played guitar with him. In addition to his sons, he is survived by his wife of 70 years, the former Phyllis Walker; two daughters, Janice and Laura Johnson; nine grandchildren; eight great-grandchildren; and a great-great-granddaughter.
Long after he was a force on the rhythm-and-blues charts, Mr. Otis was a familiar presence at blues and even jazz festivals. What people wanted to call his music, he said, was of no concern to him.
“Society wants to categorize everything, but to me it’s all African-American music,” he told The San Francisco Chronicle in 1993. “The music isn’t just the notes, it’s the culture — the way Grandma cooked, the way Grandpa told stories, the way the kids walked and talked.”
By IHSAN TAYLOR Published: January 19, 2012, Peter Keepnews contributed reporting, New York Times